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Traditional Neurofeedback
(single-channel training)

In Traditional Neurofeedback (also known as single-channel training), we place sensors on two sites of your head and during the session you play a video game with your brain. This system is based on the theory of operant conditioning where the client is rewarded with beeps, points, and game play when they change their brainwaves to healthier patterns.

It is recommended to do a QEEG Brain Map before beginning this type of Neurofeedback. The brain map allows us to see the precise parts of the brain that are dysregulated, which helps with ensuring the sensors are placed on the correct sites of the brain that need feedback.

Traditional Neurofeedback is the most well-researched and The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recently rated this type of Neurofeedback at the same level of efficacy as stimulant medication for use with those dealing with ADD and ADD/ADHD. It is stabilizing for anyone who has imbalances in the QEEG.

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LoReta Z-Score Training

LoReta (Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography)

LoReta Z-Score Training (also referred to as LoReta Neurofeedback) is the most advanced form of Neurofeedback training. It helps regulate the deep structures of the brain and improve connectivity between the brain networks unlike any other type of Neurofeedback.

The goal of LoReta is to reinforce stability of information processing in dysregulated networks and connections based on the client’s symptoms. It targets the specific areas of the brain and connections between nodes that are linked to the symptoms. In doing so it specifically targets deep brain structures that are out of balance. Similar to traditional Neurofeedback (single channel Neurofeedback) training it provides operant conditioning (rewards) based on your brainwaves compared to the brainwaves of a healthy population. One of the benefits of LoReta is that it can target many networks of the brain and symptoms at the exact same time. For this reason, clients often require fewer sessions than traditional Neurofeedback.

In each session, a cap with 19 sensors is applied to your head. During training, your brainwaves learn to become balanced and normalized as they are rewarded.

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High Performance Neurofeedback (HPN)

High Performance Neurofeedback (HPN) which is sometimes referred to as NeuroGen neurofeedback; gently pushes the brain out of stuck patterns. As your sessions progress your neurotherapist will move the sensors gradually across 10 different sites of the brain providing feedback to the whole brain. The sensors pick up on the dominant stuck patterns in the brain and then the system sends a slightly different frequency back to the brain. But don’t worry, you don’t feel a thing! Though the brain is receiving a signal, the signal going back to the brain is about 4,000 times weaker than what your brain is exposed to when you hold a cell phone to your head. The brain is basically given, for a few seconds, something new to do. The brain is a copycat so it follows the lead of the frequency that it is sent and copies it for a few seconds. This gently nudges the brain out of its dysfunctional stuck pattern (such as racing thoughts due to fast firing neurons, or inattention, depression, poor motivation and concentration or brain fog due to excess slow wave activity in the brain).

No effort is required on the client’s part and results can be felt quickly! Some people even feel the results before the session ends. Most people will feel a difference within their first four sessions. HPN is used for children as young as two-years old and is great for kids who have trouble sitting still as the sensors are placed on different sites of the head for only a few seconds at a time. HPN is a very global treatment, targeting many symptoms and imbalances at the same time.

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Neuroptimal Neurofeedback

Neuroptimal is a form of neurofeedback that provides training to reduce general dysregulations in the brain. While sitting in a quiet room in a comfortable lounge chair, your therapist will attach sensors to your head that relay your brainwave patterns into a highly sophisticated computer program. The Neurofeedback session is relaxing, enjoyable and lasts 33 minutes. As the session starts, you will hear music playing through headphones. Every time the software picks up a dysregulation in your brainwaves, you will hear “skips” or interruptions in the music, this is the signal that prompts your brain to self-correct and reorganize. At the end of a session, you will most likely feel more clarity and less stress.

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Audio-Visual Entrainment

Audio-Visual Entrainment is a simple, non-invasive device that uses a coordinated series of light and sound at specific frequencies to gently and safely guide your brain into the desired patterns. The frequencies and patterns produced can aid in meditative  practices, calming the mind, boosting mood, improving sleep and/or helping with mental clarity.  

AVE is a drug-free approach to some conditions such as Anxiety, Seasonal Affective Disorder, Chronic pain, Fibromyalgia, PTSD and ADHD. It has also shown to heighten performance and improve cognition. It is a proven way of exercising the brain as these pattern changes can be quantified using QEEGs or brain mapping. Research has also shown stimulation of frontal regions of the brain as well  as increases in synaptic density.  The use of the AVE can help the brain recover, repair and restore its equilibrium. 

 We at Toronto Neurofeedback and Psychotherapy Centre are proud to introduce Audio-Visual Entrainment as an adjunct to your regular neurofeedback treatment and/or psychotherapy sessions. You can speak with your therapist and decide together what type of protocol you want to try and we will develop a treatment plan with you. 

What would a session entail: 

  • You will enter into a quiet, dimly lit space where you can lie down or sit  comfortably. 
  • You will place sanitized glasses over your eyes and headphones over your ears. 
  • As you relax, with your eyes closed, we will start the session and you will notice light coming through the glasses and hear sounds from the ear phones. In general the experience is very comfortable and calming. 
  • Once the session is done, you are welcome to take a minute and when ready exit the office and resume your day.

There are usually no side-effects reported post session besides feeling calm and relaxed. The only known contraindication for AVE is that it is not recommended for anyone with a seizure history. 


  • Videos

    • What is Neurofeedback? A Simple Introduction

    • HPN Neurologic Introduction High Performance Neurofeedback (HPN)

    • NeurOptimal® Explainer Video

    • What Is Neurofeedback? How Brain Training Can Benefit Kids, Families, and Adults