Research Articles

Anxiety


Review of EEG Biofeedback Treatment of Anxiety Disorders
Moore, N. C. (2000). A Review of EEG Biofeedback Treatment of Anxiety Disorders. Clinical Electroencephalography,31(1), 1-6.

This article outlines the research that has examined Neurofeedback for anxiety conditions up until 2000, highlighting that alpha, theta, and alpha-theta enhancement is effective. Universitas Psychologica.

Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression and Anxiety
Hammond, Corydon D. (2005). Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression and Anxiety. Journal of Adult Development. 131-137

An effective Neurofeedback training, with cortisol correlates, in a clinical case of anxiety
Costa, Marta A., et al. (2016). An effective Neurofeedback training, with cortisol correlates, in a clinical case of anxiety.

Combined Neurofeedback and Heart Rate Variability Training for Individuals with Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression: A Retrospective Study
White, Elyse K., et al. (2017). Combined Neurofeedback and Heart Rate Variability Training for Individuals with Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression. International Society for Neurofeedback & Research. 37-55

ADHD and Attention Problems

Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Bearegard, M., Lavesque, J. (2006) Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeed¬back training on neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Applied Psychology and Biofeed¬back, 31, 3–20.

In this study, the authors examined the neural substrates of selective attention and response inhibition through fMRI of Twenty unmedicated AD/HD children. Fifteen children were randomly assigned to the Experimental (EXP) group whereas the other five children were randomly assigned to the Control (CON) group. Only subjects in the EXP group underwent Neurofeedback. EXP subjects were trained to enhance the amplitude of the SMR (12-15 Hz) and beta 1 activity (15-18 Hz), and decrease the amplitude of theta activity (4-7 Hz). The results suggest that NFT has the capacity to functionally normalize the brain systems mediating selective attention and response inhibition in ADD/ADHD children.

Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD?: A randomized controlled clinical trial.
Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Albrecht, B., Vogel, C., Schlamp, D., et al. (2009). Is Neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD? Jour¬nal of Child Psy¬chol¬ogy and Psy¬chi¬a¬try, 50, 780–789.

The authors compared children who completed Neurofeedback training with those completing a computerised attention skills training. Improvements in the Neurofeedback group were superior to the control group, including ratings of attention, hyperactivity, and oppositional behaviour.

Efficacy of Neurofeedback Treatment in ADHD: the Effects on Inattention, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity: A Meta-analysis
Arns, M., de Ridder, S., Strehl, U, Breteler M., and Coenen, A (2009).Efficacy of Neurofeedback Treatment in ADHD, Journal of Clinical EEG and Neuroscience.

Both prospective controlled studies and studies employing a pre- and post-design found large effect sizes (ES) for Neurofeedback on impulsivity and inattention and a medium ES for hyperactivity. Randomized studies demonstrated a lower ES for hyperactivity suggesting that hyperactivity is probably most sensitive to nonspecific treatment factors. The clinical effects of Neurofeedback in the treatment of ADHD can be regarded as clinically meaningful. Three randomized studies have employed a semi-active control group which can be regarded as a credible sham control providing an equal level of cognitive training and client-therapist interaction. Therefore, in line with the AAPB and ISNR guidelines for rating clinical efficacy, we conclude that Neurofeedback treatment for ADHD can be considered “Efficacious and Specific” (Level 5) with a large ES for inattention and impulsivity and a medium ES for hyperactivity.

Neurofeedback Treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children: A Comparison with methylphenidate.
Fuchs, T., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Gruzelier, J.H., & kaisier, J. (2003). Neurofeedback Treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children. Applied Psychophysiological Biofeedback, 28, pg 1-12.

The authors compared the effects of a 3-month electroencephalographic feedback program providing reinforcement contingent on the production of cortical sensorimotor rhythm (12-15 Hz) and beta activity (15-18 Hz) with stimulant medication. Results showed Neurofeedback and methylphenidate to result in improvements in all scales of attention, speed and accuracy, and other ADHD behaviours.

Sustained effects of Neurofeedback in ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Van Doren, J., et al. (2018). Sustained effects of Neurofeedback in ADHD. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 1 – 13.

In-school Neurofeedback training for ADHD: sustained improvements from a randomized control trial Steiner, N. J., et al. (2014).

In-School Neurofeedback Training for ADHD. Pediatrics.

EEG Neurofeedback treatments in children with ADHD: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur, et al. (2014). EEG Neurofeedback treatments in children with ADHD. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

Neurofeedback is the Best Available First-Line Treatment for ADHD: What is the Evidence for this Claim?
Pigott, H. Edmond., Cannon, Rex. (2014). Neurofeedback is the Best Available First-Line Treatment for ADHD: What is the Evidence for this Claim? International Society for Neurofeedback and Research. 4-23.

Autism Disorder & Asperger’s Syndrome

Brainwave Neurofeedback for Autism: Can It Help?
A fair and brief look at the state of research on Neurofeedback and Autism.

Summary of 150 Clients with Asperger’s Syndrome who were Treated with Neurofeedback.
Thompson, L., Thompson, M., & Reid, A. (2010). Neurofeedback outcomes in clients with Asperger’s Syndrome, Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback, 35, 63-81.

The children showed improvements in number of Asperger’s symptoms, attention, achievement, and intelligence.

Neurofeedback for the Autism Spectrum
Read Siegfried and Othmer, two leading experts in the field of Neurofeedback, discuss the promise of Neurofeedback for autism spectrum disorders.

Summarizing the Research on Neurofeedback and Autism.
Coben, R., Linden, M., Myers, T (2010). Neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder: A review of the literature, Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback, 35, 83-105.

The researchers discuss multiple treatment options for Autism, including how Neurofeedback.

Assessment Guided Neurofeedback for Autistic Spectrum Disorders
Coben, R., & Padolsky, I. Assessment-guided neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder, Journal of Neurotherapy, 11, 5-22

Neurofeedback application in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders
Zovoder, I., et al. (2015). Neurofeedback application in the treatment of ASD. Psychiatria Danubina. 391-394

The Effect of Neurofeedback on Brain Waves in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Hemmati, S., et al. (2016). The effect of Neurofeedback on brain waves in children with ASD. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal. 133-138

Book: How Neurofeedback Saved My Son from Autism
by Ng Sun Luen, 2017

Brain Waves and Connectivity of Autism Spectrum Disorders
Fauzan, N., Amran, N. H. (2015). Brain waves and connectivity of ASD. Procedia – Social and behavioral Sciences. 882-890

Quantitative EEG Neurofeedback for the Treatment of Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorders, Learning Disorders, and Epilepsy
Hurt, E., Arnold, L. E., Lofthouse, N. (2014). Quantitative EEG Neurofeedback for the Treatment of Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorders, Learning Disorders, and Epilepsy. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 465-486

EEG Neurofeedback for executive functions in children with neurodevelopmental challenges
Landes, JK., et al. (2017). EEG Neurofeedback for executive functions in children with neurodevelopmental challenges. The Cochrane Collaboration.

Connectivity-Guided EEG Biofeedback for Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence of Neurophysiological Changes (2014)
Coben, Robert., et al. (2014). Connectivity-Guided EEG Biofeedback for ASD. International Society for Neurofeedback & Research.

Autism: Exploring the Social Brain
Welsh, John P., Estes, Annette M. (2018). Autism: Exploring the social brain. Neuroscience.

Concussion and Traumatic Brain Injury

Neurofeedback and traumatic brain injury: a literature review
May, G., MD, Benson, R., MD, Balon, R., MD, & Boutros, N., MD. (november 2013). Neurofeedback and traumatic brain injury: A literature review. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry,289-296.

Neurofeedback for Traumatic Brain Injury: Current Trends
Thomas, J. L., & Smith, M. L. (2015). Neurofeedback for Traumatic Brain Injury: Current Trends. Biofeedback,43(1), 31-37.

EEG Neurofeedback therapy: Can it attenuate brain changes in TBI?
Munivenkatappa, A., et al. (2014). EEG Neurofeedback therapy: Can it attenuate brain changes in TBI? NeuroRehabilitiation. 481-4.

LORETA Z-score Neurofeedback-Effectiveness in Rehabilitation of Patients Suffering from Traumatic Brain Injury
Koberda, J.L. (2015). LORETA Z-score Neurofeedback-Effectiveness in Rehabilitation of Patients Suffering from Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurology and Neurobiology.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Plastic Modulation of PTSD Resting-state Networks and Subjective Wellbeing by EEG Neurofeedback.
Kleutsch, R.C., et al. (2013). Plastic Modulation of PTSD Resting-state Networks and Subjective Wellbeing by EEG Neurofeedback. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 1-14.

Recently a very exciting and innovative study from Western University has demonstrated that Neurofeedback training was associated with improvements in patients and correlations to changes in brain activity.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder – The Neurofeedback Remedy.
Othmer, S., Othmer, S.F. (2009). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder – The Neurofeedback Remedy. Biofeedback, 37, 24-31.

Read the following description of the benefits of Neurofeedback for PTSD along with the presentation of two cases. This article is written by Siegfried and Susan Othmer, two pioneers in the field of Neurofeedback.

Neurofeedback: A noninvasive treatment for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans.
Mcreynolds, C., Bell, J., & Lincourt, T. (2017). Neurofeedback: A noninvasive treatment for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans. NeuroRegulation, 4(3-4), 114-124.

A Randomized Controlled Study of Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD
Kolk, B. A., Hodgdon, H., Gapen, M., Musicaro, R., Suvak, M. K., Hamlin, E., & Spinazzola, J.(2016). A Randomized Controlled Study of Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD. Plos One,11(12)

Depression

Baehr, Rosenfeld, & Baehr
Baehr, E., Rosenfeld, J. P., & Baehr, R. (2010). Clinical Use of an Alpha Asymmetry Neurofeedback Protocol in the Treatment of Mood Disorders. Journal of Neurotherapy,11-18.

Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression and Anxiety
Hammond, D. C. (2005). Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression and Anxiety. Journal of Adult Development,12(2-3), 131-137.

Learning Disabilities and Dyslexia

Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury
Thornton, Kirtley E., Carmody, Dennis P. (2005). Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 137-162

EEG and Behavioral Changes following Neurofeedback Treatment in Learning Disabled Children
Fernández, T. et al. (2003) EEG and Behavioral Changes following Neurofeedback Treatment in Learning Disabled Children. Clinical Electroencephalography. 145-152

Improvements in Spelling after QEEG-based Neurofeedback in Dyslexia: A Randomized Controlled Treatment Study
Marinus, H.M., et al. (2010). Improvements in Spelling after QEEG-based Neurofeedback in Dyslexia: A Randomized Controlled Treatment Study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. 5 – 11.

Neurofeedback Combined with Training in Metacognitive Strategies: Effectiveness in Students with ADD
Thompson, L., Thompson, M. (1998). Neurofeedback Combined with Training in Metacognitive Strategies: Effectiveness in Students with ADD. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. 243-263

The impact of coherence Neurofeedback on reading delays in learning disabled children: A randomized controlled study
Cohen, Robert., et al. (2015). The impact of coherence Neurofeedback on reading delays in learning disabled children: A randomized controlled study. International Society for Neurofeedback & Research. 168-178

Peak Performance

Olympic Athletes Get Mental Training Boost
CBC News, 2010

EEG-Neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: A review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants
Gruzelier, John H. (2014). EEG-Neurofeedback for optimizing performance. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 124-141

Epilepsy and Seizure Conditions

Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy
Written by Walker & Kozlowski, 2005, Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 163-176.

In this article, the researchers reported that in a study with 10 patients, at the completion of the study 9 out of 10 patients were seizure free.

Impact of neurofeedback in patients with epilepsy
Written by Bakhtadze & Khachapuridz, 2010, Abstracts / Epilepsy and Behaviour, 579-620.