Research and Links
Predictors of Neurofeedback Outcomes Following qEEG Individualized Protocols for Anxiety
Gregory, J.C., Romero, D.E., Jones, M.S.(2020) Predictors of Neurofeedback Outcomes following qEEG Individualized Protocols for Anxiety. Neuroregulation, 7(1), 18-25.
Effective Neurofeedback applications in anxiety and attention symptomatology in adolescents
Tsatali, M., Sidiropoulos, S., & Bamidis, P. (2019). Effective Neurofeedback applications in anxiety and attention symptomatology in adolescents. LEncéphale,45. doi:10.1016/j.encep.2019.04.041
This study observed a group of adolescents who reported with symptoms of anxiety. After 10 sessions of neurofeedback training anxiety symptoms were found to be reduced.
Combined Neurofeedback and Heart Rate Variability Training for Individuals with Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression: A Retrospective Study
White, Elyse K., et al. (2017). Combined Neurofeedback and Heart Rate Variability Training for Individuals with Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression. International Society for Neurofeedback & Research. 37-55
An effective Neurofeedback training, with cortisol correlates, in a clinical case of anxiety
Costa, Marta A., et al. (2016). An effective Neurofeedback training, with cortisol correlates, in a clinical case of anxiety.
Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression and Anxiety
Hammond, Corydon D. (2005). Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression and Anxiety. Journal of Adult Development. 131-137
Review of EEG Biofeedback Treatment of Anxiety Disorders
Moore, N. C. (2000). A Review of EEG Biofeedback Treatment of Anxiety Disorders. Clinical Electroencephalography,31(1), 1-6.
This article outlines the research that has examined Neurofeedback for anxiety conditions up until 2000, highlighting that alpha, theta, and alpha-theta enhancement is effective. Universitas Psychologica.
ADHD Attention Problems
Neurofeedback as a Treatment Intervention in ADHD: Current Evidence and Practice
Enriquez-Geppert, S., Smit, D., Pimenta, M.G. et al. Neurofeedback as a Treatment Intervention in ADHD: Current Evidence and Practice. Curr Psychiatry Rep 21, 46 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-019-1021-4
Sustained effects of Neurofeedback in ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Van Doren, J., et al. (2018). Sustained effects of Neurofeedback in ADHD. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 1 – 13.
Effectiveness of Neurofeedback Treatment on Adult ADHD: A Meta-Analysis
Narimani, M., Ensafi, E., & Mohajeri Aval, N. (2018). Effectiveness of Neurofeedback Treatment on Adult ADHD: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Practice in Clinical Psychology, 6(2), 73-82. https://doi.org/10.29252/nirp.jpcp.6.2.73
Functional connectivity changes associated with fMRI neurofeedback of right inferior frontal cortex in adolescents with ADHD
Rubia, K., Criaud, M., Wulff, M., Alegria, A., Brinson, H., Barker, G., … Giampietro, V. (2018, December 1). Functional connectivity changes associated with fMRI neurofeedback of right inferior frontal cortex in adolescents with ADHD.
In-school Neurofeedback training for ADHD: sustained improvements from a randomized control trial Steiner, N. J., et al. (2014).
In-School Neurofeedback Training for ADHD. Pediatrics.
EEG Neurofeedback treatments in children with ADHD: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur, et al. (2014). EEG Neurofeedback treatments in children with ADHD. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
Neurofeedback is the Best Available First-Line Treatment for ADHD: What is the Evidence for this Claim?
Pigott, H. Edmond., Cannon, Rex. (2014). Neurofeedback is the Best Available First-Line Treatment for ADHD: What is the Evidence for this Claim? International Society for Neurofeedback and Research. 4-23.
Training for Success in a Child with ADHD: Case study
Lena Santhirasegaram, BSc, Lynda Thompson, PhD, Andrea Reid, MA, CCC, and Michael Thompson, MD (2013).Training for Success in a Child with ADHD: Case study. Biofeedback Vol 41 Issue 2, 75-81. DOI: 10.5298/1081-5937-41.2.07
Neurofeedback in ADHD: a single-blind randomized controlled trial
Bakhshayesh, A.R., Hänsch, S., Wyschkon, A. et al. Neurofeedback in ADHD: a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 20, 481 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-011-0208-y
Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD?: A randomized controlled clinical trial.
Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Albrecht, B., Vogel, C., Schlamp, D., et al. (2009). Is Neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD? Jour¬nal of Child Psy¬chol¬ogy and Psy¬chi¬a¬try, 50, 780–789.
The authors compared children who completed Neurofeedback training with those completing a computerised attention skills training. Improvements in the Neurofeedback group were superior to the control group, including ratings of attention, hyperactivity, and oppositional behaviour.
Efficacy of Neurofeedback Treatment in ADHD: the Effects on Inattention, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity: A Meta-analysis
Arns, M., de Ridder, S., Strehl, U, Breteler M., and Coenen, A (2009).Efficacy of Neurofeedback Treatment in ADHD, Journal of Clinical EEG and Neuroscience.
Both prospective controlled studies and studies employing a pre- and post-design found large effect sizes (ES) for Neurofeedback on impulsivity and inattention and a medium ES for hyperactivity. Randomized studies demonstrated a lower ES for hyperactivity suggesting that hyperactivity is probably most sensitive to nonspecific treatment factors. The clinical effects of Neurofeedback in the treatment of ADHD can be regarded as clinically meaningful. Three randomized studies have employed a semi-active control group which can be regarded as a credible sham control providing an equal level of cognitive training and client-therapist interaction. Therefore, in line with the AAPB and ISNR guidelines for rating clinical efficacy, we conclude that Neurofeedback treatment for ADHD can be considered “Efficacious and Specific” (Level 5) with a large ES for inattention and impulsivity and a medium ES for hyperactivity.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Bearegard, M., Lavesque, J. (2006) Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeed¬back training on neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Applied Psychology and Biofeed¬back, 31, 3–20.
In this study, the authors examined the neural substrates of selective attention and response inhibition through fMRI of Twenty unmedicated AD/HD children. Fifteen children were randomly assigned to the Experimental (EXP) group whereas the other five children were randomly assigned to the Control (CON) group. Only subjects in the EXP group underwent Neurofeedback. EXP subjects were trained to enhance the amplitude of the SMR (12-15 Hz) and beta 1 activity (15-18 Hz), and decrease the amplitude of theta activity (4-7 Hz). The results suggest that NFT has the capacity to functionally normalize the brain systems mediating selective attention and response inhibition in ADD/ADHD children.
Autism Disorder and Apsberger Syndrome
Brainwave Neurofeedback for Autism: Can It Help?
A fair and brief look at the state of research on Neurofeedback and Autism.
Book: How Neurofeedback Saved My Son from Autism
by Ng Sun Luen (2017)
The Effect of Neurofeedback on Brain Waves in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Hemmati, S., et al. (2016). The effect of Neurofeedback on brain waves in children with ASD. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal. 133-138
Brain Waves and Connectivity of Autism Spectrum Disorders
Fauzan, N., Amran, N. H. (2015). Brain waves and connectivity of ASD. Procedia – Social and behavioral Sciences. 882-890
Connectivity-Guided EEG Biofeedback for Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence of Neurophysiological Changes (2014)
Coben, Robert., et al. (2014). Connectivity-Guided EEG Biofeedback for ASD. International Society for Neurofeedback & Research.
Summary of 150 Clients with Asperger’s Syndrome who were Treated with Neurofeedback.
Thompson, L., Thompson, M., & Reid, A. (2010). Neurofeedback outcomes in clients with Asperger’s Syndrome, Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback, 35, 63-81.
The children showed improvements in number of Asperger’s symptoms, attention, achievement, and intelligence.
Neurofeedback for the Autism Spectrum
Read Siegfried and Othmer, two leading experts in the field of Neurofeedback, discuss the promise of Neurofeedback for autism spectrum disorders.
Designing Mobile EEG Neurofeedback Games for Children with Autism
Children with ASD and their caregivers played neurofeedback-based games which were shown to be useful in enhancing the children’s attentional and social capabilities.
Concussion and Traumatic Brain Injury
LORETA Z-score Neurofeedback-Effectiveness in Rehabilitation of Patients Suffering from Traumatic Brain Injury
Koberda, J.L. (2015). LORETA Z-score Neurofeedback-Effectiveness in Rehabilitation of Patients Suffering from Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurology and Neurobiology.
EEG Neurofeedback therapy: Can it attenuate brain changes in TBI?
Munivenkatappa, A., et al. (2014). EEG Neurofeedback therapy: Can it attenuate brain changes in TBI? NeuroRehabilitiation. 481-4.
Participants with brain lesions were able to improve their cognitive function using neurofeedback training.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Evaluation of Neurofeedback for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Refugee Experiences Using Self-Report and Cognitive ERP Measures
Askovic, M., Watters, A. J., Coello, M., Aroche, J., Harris, A. W., & Kropotov, J. (2019). Evaluation of Neurofeedback for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Refugee Experiences Using Self-Report and Cognitive ERP Measures. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience,155005941984917. doi:10.1177/1550059419849170
Refugee participants who received trauma therapy in combination with neurofeedback experienced lower anxiety, depression and trauma symptoms compared to those who just received trauma therapy.
Current Status of Neurofeedback for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Chiba, T., Kanazawa, T., Koizumi, A., Ide, K., Taschereau-Dumouchel, V., Boku, S., Hishimoto, A., Shirakawa, M., Sora, I., Lau, H., Yoneda, H., & Kawato, M. (2019). Current Status of Neurofeedback for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review and the Possibility of Decoded Neurofeedback. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 13, 233. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2019.00233
Participants suffering with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder experienced less severe symptoms after being treated with decoded neurofeedback, providing PTSD and fear-related disorders with a treatment method that avoids traditional exposure.
Neurofeedback: A noninvasive treatment for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans.
Mcreynolds, C., Bell, J., & Lincourt, T. (2017). Neurofeedback: A noninvasive treatment for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans. NeuroRegulation, 4(3-4), 114-124.
A Randomized Controlled Study of Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD
Kolk, B. A., Hodgdon, H., Gapen, M., Musicaro, R., Suvak, M. K., Hamlin, E., & Spinazzola, J.(2016). A Randomized Controlled Study of Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD. Plos One,11(12)
Neurofeedback treatment greatly improved symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in many participants in comparison to participants treated with trauma-focused psychotherapy.
A Controlled Study on the Cognitive Effect of Alpha Neurofeedback Training in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
Javier, Marco, Ridder, D., Dirk, & Javier. (2014, August 13). A controlled study on the cognitive effect of alpha neurofeedback training in patients with major depressive disorder.Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00296/full#h5
EEG-based neurofeedback shows promise in treating Major Depressive Disorder by improving cognitive functions such as working memory, which ultimately contributes to fewer depressive symptoms.
Baehr, Rosenfeld, & Baehr
Baehr, E., Rosenfeld, J. P., & Baehr, R. (2010). Clinical Use of an Alpha Asymmetry Neurofeedback Protocol in the Treatment of Mood Disorders. Journal of Neurotherapy,11-18.
Neurofeedback was able to improve mood disorder symptomatology in participants via improvement in frontal asymmetry and have long lasting impact on these individuals after talk-based therapies created little to no improvement in their depressive symptoms.
Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression and Anxiety
Hammond, D. C. (2005). Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression and Anxiety. Journal of Adult Development,12(2-3), 131-137.
The author observes that neurofeedback is a promising advancement in treating depression and anxiety, especially in individuals who seem to be predisposed to mental health disorders and when medications have failed thus far.
Learning Disabilities and Dyslexia
The impact of coherence Neurofeedback on reading delays in learning disabled children: A randomized controlled study
Cohen, Robert., et al. (2015). The impact of coherence Neurofeedback on reading delays in learning disabled children: A randomized controlled study. International Society for Neurofeedback & Research. 168-178
Improvements in Spelling After QEEG-based Neurofeedback in Dyslexia: A Randomized Controlled Treatment Study
Marinus, H.M., et al. (2010). Improvements in Spelling after QEEG-based Neurofeedback in Dyslexia: A Randomized Controlled Treatment Study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. 5 – 11.
Children with dyslexia were observed and administered QEEG-based neurofeedback which significantly improved their difficulty spelling, implying that neurofeedback might be an important development in treating dyslexia.
Electroencephalogram Biofeedback for Reading Disability and Traumatic Brain Inury
Thornton, Kirtley E., Carmody, Dennis P. (2005). Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 137-162
The researcher explains that neurofeedback is likely an effective treatment option for remediating reading disabilities as well as for traumatic brain injury given the current limited empirical data.
Cognitive Improvement and Brain Changes after Real-Time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Training in Healthy Elderly and Prodromal Alzheimer’s Disease
Hohenfeld, Nellessen, Nils, Dogan, Imis, Kuhn, … Kathrin. (2017, July 19). Cognitive Improvement and Brain Changes after Real-Time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Training in Healthy Elderly and Prodromal Alzheimer’s Disease. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2017.00384/full
This study demonstrates that through the use of fMRI neurofeedback, cognitive decline can be reduced, both in healthy elderly patients and patients suffering from Prodromal Alzheimer’s Disease.
EEG-Neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: A review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants
Gruzelier, John H. (2014). EEG-Neurofeedback for optimizing performance. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 124-141
Olympic Athletes Get Mental Training Boost
CBC News, 2010
Olympic athletes use neurofeedback in an innovative way in order to manage their stress and maximize their ability to focus and overall success.
Biofeedback allowed for temporal control, improved body control, and was beneficial for individuals experienced with sports.
Epilepsy and Seizure Conditions
Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy
Written by Walker & Kozlowski, 2005, Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 163-176.
In this article, the researchers reported that in a study with 10 patients, at the completion of the study 9 out of 10 patients were seizure free.
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